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Title: Seroep EFFECT OF CAMEL MILK ON PLASMA LIPIDS PROFILE IN INDUCED-HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIC RATS
Author: Barakat, E. Mohamed and N., Z. Idam
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4.REPORT: This is a report of lipid serum data derived from feeding rats camels milk. There are no conclusions and the same results are presented 3 times! The report description of methods and results are hard to follow and confusing. Table 1 suffices for results which should be discussed. Figure 1 simply repeats table data and the text does so again. Abstract says 21 rats but how many per group needs to be stated otherwise the statistics are useless. The work needs to be redefined what are the conclusions? Does camel milk have any effect of plasma lipids or not and if so, which one? It would appear that the only effect was that both cholesterol and/or camel milk may have reduced HDL-c. This is a barely pass work and authors will have to re-submit.
TITLE change see suggestions
Completely re-write see suggested below: ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of raw camel milk on plasma lipids profile in rats fed on cholesterol enriched diet. Twenty one Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups A, B and C, Group A was used as a control group and was given only standard rats diet, group B received a diet containing 1% cholesterol and group C received a diet containing 1% cholesterol in addition to 16 ml/kg Bwt raw camel milk twice daily for 4 weeks. The results showed that there was a significant (P<0.05) increase in the level of plasma total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c) and triglycerides (TG) in group B (CHOLESTEROL ONLY GROUP) compared to the control group. The plasma levels of TC, LDL-c and TG in group C were insignificantly deceased compared to the control group. However, there was no significant difference between groups B and C despite the decease in group C. The level of plasma HDL-c was significantly (P<0.05) lower in group B and group C compared to the control group (group A). There was no significant difference between group B and C with respect to HDl-c level.
Key words: camel milk, cholesterol ,Coronary heart disease
IThe effect of raw camel milk on plasma lipids in rats fed a cholesterol enriched diet was investigated. Wistar albino rats were fed a standard diet (controls), 1% cholesterol or 1% cholesterol with 16 ml/kg raw camel milk twice daily for 4 weeks. Results showed a significant (P<0.05) increase in plasma total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c) and triglycerides (TG) in rats fed 1% cholesterol compared to the control group. Plasma TC, LDL-c and TG in rats fed camel milk did not decrease compared with controls. There was no significant difference between rats fed 1% cholesterol and those given camel milk. Plasma HDL-c was significantly (P<0.05) lower in rats given 1% cholesterol compared with controls but no difference with those fed camel milk
Delete not required old story: Hypercholesterolemia is a major risk factor associated with heart disease. Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the most common form of heart disease rises with high plasma LDL-c concentration which carries most of the circulating plasma cholesterol(2). Epidemiological studies demonstrated that there is a continuous increase in the risk of death from CHD with increasing serum cholesterol(7). Keeping blood cholesterol at desirable level is the fundamental choice for controlling this disease. Changes in the diet plays an important role in reducing plasma cholesterol(2).
Relevant use this:see suggestedCamel milk? is an important nutrient source for human which represent the only source of protein in tropical and sub-tropical regions(5). It differs from other ruminants milk having low sugar, low cholesterol, high minerals(9) and high amount of vitamin C which is three times higher than that of bovine milk(6). Camel milk contains high amount of poly-unsaturated fatty acids which are essential for human nutrition and may lower human serum lipids, hence it lead to a decrease incidence of lipids related cardiovascular disease(8). It was reported that vitamin C is necessary for cholesterol transformation to the bile acids at the rate limiting step of bile acids biosynthesis(13). The hypocholesterolemic activity of vitamin C is due to the enhancement of cholesterol 7-α hydroxylase enzyme which is involved in the catabolism of cholesterol. Because of the high amount of vitamin C in camel milk and its role as an antioxidant therefore, the study aim to investigate the effect of raw camel milk on plasma total cholesterol, LDL-c, HDL-c and triglycerides in induced hypercholesterolemic rats.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
Twenty one adult male Wistar albino rats weighing 85-120 g were used in this study. They were housed in premises of the Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Research Institute, Sudan. All rats were fed with standard diet and acclimatized in standardized condition for 7 weeks before starting the experiment.
The rats were divided into three groups named A, B and C of seven rats each. Group A was fed with standard diet and used as untreated control, group B received a diet containing 1% cholesterol (for induction of hypercholesterolemia) while group C received a diet containing 1% cholesterol in addition to 16 ml/kg body weight (Bwt) of raw camel milk twice daily, which was given orally via a gastric tube. The experimental period was 4 weeks.
Blood samples condition:
Blood samples were collected every two weeks interval during the experimental period, after an over-night fast. Blood was drawn from the orbital plexus by capillary glass tubes(11) and collected in lithium leparin containers. The tubes were centrifuged at 5000 rpm for 10 min. for the separation of plasma.
Plasma total cholesterol, LDL-c, HDL-c and triglycerides were estimated by using fully automated and computerized Roche Diagnostic Hitachi 902 Analyzer, employing enzymatic photometric assay.
Data was analyzed using complete randomized design to separate the means and standard error with the aid of a computer package program (SPSS). The significant differences between groups were evaluated using general linear model of statistical analysis system (12).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
See suggested below: Results: The results of plasma total cholesterol, HDL-c, LDL-c and triglycerides of groups A, B and C were presented in
Results 1 Table (1) and
Same results again Fig. (1).
Same results in text again! There was a significant (P<0.05) increase in the level of plasma total cholesterol in group B (cholesterol untreated group) and C (cholesterol fed treated group) compared to the control group. However the increase is more in group B compared to group C with no significant difference.
The level of plasma HDL-c was significantly (<0.05) lower in group B and C compared to the control group.
The plasma levels of LDL-c of groups B and C was significantly (P<0.05) higher compared to the control group. In group C the level of plasma LDL-c was non-significantly lower compared to group B.
The plasma level of triglycerides was significantly (P<0.05) higher in group B and C compared to the control group. While there was no significant difference between group C and group B despite the lower level of triglycerides in group C.
Discussion: There is an increasing global concern about the role of the food in health and disease. The concept is consistent with historic belief that natural substances play an important role in prevention and treatment. Camel milk is of putative hypocholesterolemic effect in Sudanese traditional medicine (personal communication, 2007). Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of raw camel milk nutrients on the levels of plasma lipids profile in induced hypercholesterolemic rats.
The study showed that administration of 16 ml/kg Bwt of raw camel milk twice daily caused insignificant decrease in the levels of plasma total cholesterol, LDL-c, and triglycerides compared to the control group. This decrease corresponds to (10.32%), (23.06%) and (3.69%) for total cholesterol, LDL-c and triglycerides respectively in comparison with cholesterol fed untreated group (group B). The results revealed that there was a significant (P<0.05) decrease in the levels of plasma HDL-c in camel milk treated group compared to the control group. These findings are in line with Agrawal et al.(1) who reported that the oral administration of 500 ml of raw camel milk for three months did not significantly affect the levels of plasma lipid profiles of type one diabetic patients. Similar result was found by Mahamad et al.(10) who reported that camel milk have no significant effect on the serum lipids profile at 500 ml/kg Bwt when it was given to type 1 diabetic patients for 4 weeks. The effect of camel milk on cholesterol is attributed to vitamin C content which acts as antioxidant. The insignificant effect reported in this study may be due to the fact that vitamin C which is found in camel milk is not quite enough to decrease the plasma cholesterol level. Also the gazing area affects milk composition.
In contrat Elayan et al. (4) found hypocholesterolemic effect of fermented camel milk (gariss) in diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rats. They reported that supplementation of 0.5 g gariss for 6 weeks reduced the level of plasma total cholesterol, LDL-c and triglyceride with no significant effect on HDL-c. Suzuki et al.(14) reported that fermented dairy product have been recommended as dietary supplement because of their hypocholesterolemic effect. The source of variation may be due to the fact that fermented milk contains more hypocholesterolemic factors greater than milk(3).
This is enough!
Table (1): Values of plasma lipids profile of induced hypercholesterolemic
Wistar albino rats.
Total cholesterol (mg/dl)
81.76 ± 1.98b
150.00 ± 15.49b
134.52 ± 14.84a
47.77 ± 1.83a
33.30 ± 1.44b
34.79 ± 1.87b
27.65 ± 1.80b
107.40 ± 14.78a
82.63 ± 13.12a
73.29 ± 5.47b
93.95 ± 6.6a
90.48 ± 4.87a
Means (±SE) with the same row having different superscript small letters are significantly different at (P<0.05).
Group A: Fed standard diet, Group B:Fed standard diet with 1% cholesterol, Group C: Fed standard diet with1% cholesterol and 16 ml/kg Bwt camel milk
Table (1): Values of plasma lipids profile of induced hypercholesterolemic Wistar albino rats.
Parameters A B C
Total cholesterol (mg/dl) 81.76 ± 1.98b 150.00 ± 15.49b 134.52 ± 14.84a
HDL-c (mg/dl) 47.77 ± 1.83a 33.30 ± 1.44b 34.79 ± 1.87b
LDL-c (mg/dl) 27.65 ± 1.80b 107.40 ± 14.78a 82.63 ± 13.12a
Triglycerides (mg/dl) 73.29 ± 5.47b 93.95 ± 6.6a 90.48 ± 4.87a
Means (±SE) with the same row having different superscript small letters are significantly different at (P<0.05).
Group A: Fed standard diet
Group B: Fed standard diet with 1% cholesterol
Group C: Fed standard diet with1% cholesterol and 16 ml/kg Bwt camel milk
Panel (A) Panel (B)
Panel (C) Panel (D)
Fig.(1): The effect of camel milk on plasma total cholesterol, LDL-c, HDL-c and triglycerides in induced hypercholesterolemic Wistar albino rats.
Bars having different superscript small letters are significantly different at (P<0.05).
Group A: Fed standard diet.
Group B: Fed standard diet with 1% cholesterol.
Group C: Fed standard diet with 1% cholesterol and given orally 16 ml/kg Bwt raw camel milk.
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